All GEO Courses

  • GEO 113  Introduction to Economic Geography

    GEO 113  Introduction to Economic Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Spatial distribution of resources, population, enterprise, trade, consumption, and production. Interaction of those distributions at local to global scales.
  • GEO 151  Introduction to Human Geography

    GEO 151  Introduction to Human Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    A systematic study of spatial patterns and processes that have shaped human use and alteration of the world.
  • GEO 201  Introduction to Plant Geography

    GEO 201  Introduction to Plant Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Not open to graduate students.
    Description:
    Geographic distribution and characteristics of plants throughout the world; relationships between biomes and aspects of the physical environment (climate, soils, landforms, disturbance); plant ecology; human impacts on vegetation; optional field trip on campus.
  • GEO 203  Introduction to Meteorology

    GEO 203  Introduction to Meteorology

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Fundamentals of meteorology. Energy balance, adiabatic processes, horizontal motion, cyclogenesis, and severe weather.
  • GEO 204  World Regional Geography

    GEO 204  World Regional Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Economic, political, cultural, environmental, and technological processes and conditions that explain the diversity of world regions.
  • GEO 206  Physical Geography

    GEO 206  Physical Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Geographic and functional interrelationships within the physical environment: Earth-sun relationships, weather, climate, soils, vegetation and landforms (terrain characteristics).
  • GEO 206L  Physical Geography Laboratory

    GEO 206L  Physical Geography Laboratory

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 1   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 113 or GEO 151 or GEO 203 or GEO 204 or (GEO 206 or concurrently) or GEO 208 or GEO 211 or GEO 215 or GEO 221
    Description:
    Geographic aspects of weather, climate, soil, vegetation, and terrain. Interpretation and application of maps and remotely sensed imagery.
  • GEO 211  Environmental Policy and Practice

    GEO 211  Environmental Policy and Practice

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    A systematic study of environmental policy and resource management practices in the United States and the broader global context, emphasizing geographical and other social sciences perspectives.
  • GEO 214  Geography of Drugs

    GEO 214  Geography of Drugs

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Physical, ecological, and human geographies of drugs, drug crops, pharmaceuticals, alcohol, and their diffusions. Cultural geographies and geopolitical implications of drugs' consumption, trade, and regulation and prohibition.
  • GEO 215  Sports Geography

    GEO 215  Sports Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Geographical variables that influence the location, character, and spread of sports at the national and global scale. Human cultures and diffusion. Themes associated with the geography of sports. Origin and spread of collegiate, professional, international, and Olympic sports
  • GEO 221  Introduction to Geographic Information

    GEO 221  Introduction to Geographic Information

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Principles and methods of spatial data collection, handling, analysis, and display. Introduction to remote sensing, geographic information systems, and cartography.
  • GEO 221L  Introduction to Geographic Information Laboratory

    GEO 221L  Introduction to Geographic Information Laboratory

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 1   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 221 or concurrently
    Recommended Background:
    Basic computer and math skills
    Description:
    Basic skills for working with Geographic Information Systems, remotely sensed imagery, design of maps, geospatial tools and technologies for data analysis and problem-solving.
  • GEO 235  Geography of Environment and Health

    GEO 235  Geography of Environment and Health

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Geographic patterns of global health and environmental inequalities; the built, physical and social environment; urban design; infectious and chronic diseases.
  • GEO 259  Geography of Recreation and Tourism

    GEO 259  Geography of Recreation and Tourism

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Cultural, physical, and biotic factors affecting the distribution of recreation and tourism resources and participation. U.S. and international examples and case studies.
  • GEO 286  Undergraduate Research in Geography

    GEO 286  Undergraduate Research in Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Supervised research on a topic or topics determined by the instructor. Applications of geographic tools and theory.
  • GEO 302  Climates of the World

    GEO 302  Climates of the World

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 206 or GEO 203
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen.
    Description:
    Regional climates and underlying atmospheric circulation patterns. Climate classification, physical climatic processes, spatial and temporal aspects of climate, climate changes. Sources and use of climate data.
  • GEO 303  Severe and Hazardous Weather

    GEO 303  Severe and Hazardous Weather

    Semester:
    Spring of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 203 or approval of the department
    Description:
    Extratropical cyclones, freezing precipitation and ice storms, lake effect snowstorms, cold waves, blizzards, thunderstorms, tornadoes, downbursts, tropical cyclones, floods, drought, and heatwaves.
  • GEO 306  Environmental Geomorphology

    GEO 306  Environmental Geomorphology

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    CSS 210 or GEO 206 or GEO 333 or GLG 201 or GLG 304 or ISP 203A
    Description:
    Relationships of running water, weathering, gravity, ice, waves, wind, and biota (including humans) to terrain and soils. Evolution of landscapes. Classical and modern interpretations.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Geological Sciences
  • GEO 314  Methods for Investigation of Urban Systems

    GEO 314  Methods for Investigation of Urban Systems

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3   Lab Hours: 2
    Description:
    Models, approaches, and techniques for urban and regional problem analysis, research, program evaluation, and project management. Application of related computer software.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Urban Planning
  • GEO 324  Remote Sensing of the Environment

    GEO 324  Remote Sensing of the Environment

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 4
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 221
    Description:
    Features and interpretation methods of remotely-sensed imagery, especially black-and-white and color infrared airphotos. Basic features of radar, thermal, and multispectral imagery. Interpretation for agriculture, archaeology, fisheries, forestry, geography, landscape architecture, planning, and wildlife management.
  • GEO 325  Geographic Information Systems

    GEO 325  Geographic Information Systems

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 221 and GEO 221L
    Description:
    Technical and theoretical issues in the design, implementation, and use of geographic information systems for research and applications.
  • GEO 326  Cartographic Design and Production

    GEO 326  Cartographic Design and Production

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 4
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 221 and GEO 221L
    Description:
    Map design, layout, and usability. Typography and color theory. Techniques of map production, print, and digital display.
  • GEO 330  Geography of the United States and Canada

    GEO 330  Geography of the United States and Canada

    Semester:
    Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Regional analysis. Evolution and status of environmental, demographic, economic, and sociocultural patterns and processes.
  • GEO 333  Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region

    GEO 333  Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Michigan's physical, historical, and economic geography. Interrelationships between the physical environment (rocks, landforms, soils, climate, vegetation, hydrology) and historical and contemporary land use. Demographic and agricultural patterns. Human history and settlement patterns. Contemporary recreational opportunities.
  • GEO 335  Geography of Latin America

    GEO 335  Geography of Latin America

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Physical and human geography of Latin America. Current development issues, especially people-environment interaction in urban and rural areas. Topics include migration, urbanization, and industrialization.
  • GEO 336  Geography of Europe

    GEO 336  Geography of Europe

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Major regions and nations, including their physical resources, peoples, political structures, and economies.
  • GEO 337  Geography of Asia-Pacific

    GEO 337  Geography of Asia-Pacific

    Semester:
    Spring of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Spatial patterns and processes of economic, urban, human and physical geography in eastern Asia, including China, Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the Indian subcontinent and other Asian countries. Contemporary regional development.
  • GEO 338  Geography of Africa

    GEO 338  Geography of Africa

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Physical and human geography of Africa. Current development issues, especially people-environment interaction in urban and rural areas. Topics include drought, agricultural patterns, hunger, rural development, migration, and urbanization.
  • GEO 339  Geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    GEO 339  Geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    Semester:
    Spring of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Physical and human geographies of the Middle East and North Africa. Historical and contemporary topics of ethno-nationalism, religion, state-building, and peace and conflict. Current issues of environment, development, urbanization, and global interactions.
  • GEO 340  Geography of Eurasia

    GEO 340  Geography of Eurasia

    Semester:
    Spring of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Description:
    Physical, ecological, and human geographies of the lands and peoples of the former Russian and Soviet empires and of neighboring regions.
  • GEO 363  Introduction to Quantitative Methods for Geographers

    GEO 363  Introduction to Quantitative Methods for Geographers

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    Completion of the University mathematics requirement.
    Description:
    Quantitative techniques in the analysis and classification of spatial data.
  • GEO 370  Introduction to Zoogeography

    GEO 370  Introduction to Zoogeography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    IBIO 355
    Description:
    Patterns of geographical distribution of animals and the ecological and historical processes leading to these patterns.
    Semester Alias:
    ZOL 370
    Interdepartmental With:
    Integrative Biology, Fisheries and Wildlife
  • GEO 372  Ecological Monitoring and Data Analysis

    GEO 372  Ecological Monitoring and Data Analysis

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    ((MTH 124 or MTH 132) and completion of Tier I writing requirement) and (STT 201 or STT 224 or STT 231 or STT 421)
    Description:
    Design of ecological monitoring systems and analysis of resulting ecological data sets. Monitoring system design, model specification and implementation, and computational considerations from both a design- and model-based perspective. Hands-on introduction to statistical software.
    Semester Alias:
    FOR 472
    Interdepartmental With:
    Forestry
  • GEO 401  Global Plant Geography

    GEO 401  Global Plant Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 201 or FOR 101 or FOR 204 or PLB 218 or IBIO 355 or approval of the department
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen.
    Description:
    Patterns of global plant distributions. Plant-atmosphere interactions, ecological processes, biogeographic patterns and predictive models of plant distributions.
  • GEO 402  Agricultural Climatology

    GEO 402  Agricultural Climatology

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    MTH 110 or MTH 116
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Relationships between climate and agriculture in resource assessment, water budget analysis, meteorological hazards, pests, crop-yield modeling, and impacts of global climate change.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Biosystems Engineering
  • GEO 403  Dynamic Meteorology (W)

    GEO 403  Dynamic Meteorology (W)

    Semester:
    Spring of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    (MTH 234 and GEO 203) and completion of Tier I writing requirement
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 405
    Restrictions:
    Open to juniors or seniors or master's students or doctoral students.
    Description:
    Principles of fluid dynamics and their application to the atmosphere.
  • GEO 405  Weather Analysis and Forecasting

    GEO 405  Weather Analysis and Forecasting

    Semester:
    Spring of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 203 and (MTH 110 or MTH 116)
    Description:
    Dynamic and thermodynamic principles of atmospheric science applied to the development and evolution of extratropical cyclones. Laboratory sessions include analysis of current observations and satellite imagery.
  • GEO 407  Regional Geomorphology of the United States

    GEO 407  Regional Geomorphology of the United States

    Semester:
    Spring of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 306 or GLG 201 or GLG 412 or ISP 203A or ISP 203B
    Description:
    Geomorphic characteristics of physiographic regions of the United States.
  • GEO 408  Soil Geomorphology Field Study

    GEO 408  Soil Geomorphology Field Study

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 4
    Prerequisite:
    CSS 210 or GEO 306 or GLG 201 or GLG 412 or GEO 206
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Common geographic relationships among soils, landforms, and vegetation in lower Michigan. Description, analysis, and genesis of soils and landscapes. Surficial processes.
  • GEO 409  Global Climate Change and Variability

    GEO 409  Global Climate Change and Variability

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 203 or GEO 206
    Description:
    Analysis of climate change and variability at various time and space scales. Climate systems, paleoclimatology, global warming, climate models, and climate impact assessment.
  • GEO 410  Geography of Food and Agriculture

    GEO 410  Geography of Food and Agriculture

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 113 or GEO 151 or GEO 204 or GEO 206
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Spatial patterns of contemporary global agriculture and food systems. Human-environment geography of select agricultural practices and food systems. Effects of agricultural practices on natural and human resources.
  • GEO 411  Stream Systems and Landforms

    GEO 411  Stream Systems and Landforms

    Semester:
    Spring of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 206 or GEO 306 or GLG 201 or GLG 431
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Themes associated with stream systems. Evolution of drainage basins and channel hydrology. The nature of flowing water, stream discharge, and flooding. Controls of stream behavior. Channel patterns and landform development. Character of Michigan stream systems. Field project.
  • GEO 412  Glacial Geology and the Record of Climate Change

    GEO 412  Glacial Geology and the Record of Climate Change

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3   Lab Hours: 2
    Recommended Background:
    GLG 201 or GEO 306 or GEO 408 or GLG 301
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    In-depth analysis of glacial geology and the record of climate change, with emphasis on North America and Europe. Field trip required.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Geological Sciences
  • GEO 413  Urban Geography

    GEO 413  Urban Geography

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Theories and models of urban spatial form. Underlying structures and processes. Socio-spatial dimensions of modern urbanism. Differentiation and locational conflict in residential, commercial, and industrial space.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Urban Planning
  • GEO 414  Geography of Transportation

    GEO 414  Geography of Transportation

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 113
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen.
    Description:
    Spatial principles of transportation. Theories of interaction, network structures, and location-allocation models. Role of transport and transport planning.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Urban Planning
  • GEO 415  Location Theory and Land Use Analysis

    GEO 415  Location Theory and Land Use Analysis

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 113 or UP 201
    Recommended Background:
    EC 201 or EC 202
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Classical and neoclassical, static and dynamic models of industrial location and spatial organization. Land rent theory. Central place theory. Multi-locational organization. Growth transmission.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Urban Planning
  • GEO 418  The Ghetto

    GEO 418  The Ghetto

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Analysis of the ghetto including its spatial organization and structure. Distribution of racial and ethnic populations. Emphasis on U.S. cities.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Urban Planning
  • GEO 419  Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Natural Resources Management

    GEO 419  Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Natural Resources Management

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 4
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 221
    Description:
    Application of geographic information systems, remote sensing, and global positioning systems to integrated planning and management for fish, wildlife, and related resources.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Forestry, Fisheries and Wildlife, Biosystems Engineering
    Administered By:
    Forestry
  • GEO 424  Advanced Remote Sensing

    GEO 424  Advanced Remote Sensing

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 324
    Description:
    Interaction of solar radiation with the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Introductory digital image processing. Earth-resources satellite sensors, data products, and applications. Radar and thermal remote sensing.
  • GEO 425  Problems in Geographic Information Science (W)

    GEO 425  Problems in Geographic Information Science (W)

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    (GEO 325 or GEO 802) and completion of Tier I writing requirement
    Description:
    Advanced theoretical and technical issues in geographic information science utilizing a problems oriented approach. Development and implementation of geographic information science solutions and formal documentation of work.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Urban Planning
  • GEO 426  Thematic Cartography

    GEO 426  Thematic Cartography

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 221 and GEO 221L and GEO 326 or approval of department
    Description:
    Principles, theories, decision making, and techniques in thematic map production. Graphic and Geographic Information Systems applications. Print and digital display.
  • GEO 428  Digital Terrain Analysis

    GEO 428  Digital Terrain Analysis

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 325
    Description:
    Theoretical and technical issues of collection, management, analysis, and display of terrain data. Application of photogrammetry, geographic information systems, and cartography.
  • GEO 429  Geoprocessing

    GEO 429  Geoprocessing

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 325 or GEO 802 or approval of department
    Description:
    Applications of computer programming to address geographic information problems. Integration of digital spatial data, geographic information systems, spatial analysis, and expert systems.
  • GEO 432  Environmental Ethics (W)

    GEO 432  Environmental Ethics (W)

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    Completion of Tier I writing requirement.
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Ethical dimensions of environmental and spatial issues and associated public policies
  • GEO 435  Geography of Health and Disease

    GEO 435  Geography of Health and Disease

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Spatio-environmental concepts and techniques applied to health problems. Disease transmission cycles, community nutrition, and health-care planning.
  • GEO 436  Spatial Analysis of Populations

    GEO 436  Spatial Analysis of Populations

    Semester:
    Spring of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores.
    Description:
    Concepts and methods to measure and evaluate geo-spatial and temporal trends in populations and their components, such as natality, mortality, migration, and characteristics at different geographic scales. Sources of spatial population data. Visualization and analysis of data in a geographical information system.
  • GEO 440  Critical Geopolitics

    GEO 440  Critical Geopolitics

    Semester:
    Spring of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen.
    Description:
    Political geographies of origins and conduct of nation-states. Identity-place dynamics. Colonialism and imperialism. Geopolitics and geopolitical ideas. Resource and environmental politics. Resistance and terrorism.
  • GEO 441  Cultural Geography

    GEO 441  Cultural Geography

    Semester:
    Spring of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 151
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen.
    Description:
    Survey of the geographic study of world cultures, cultural ecologies, cultural landscapes, and cultural influences on societies’ patterns of spatial organization.
  • GEO 442  Social Science Data Analytics Applications

    GEO 442  Social Science Data Analytics Applications

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    PLS 202
    Description:
    Application of computational tools for data collection and visualization to various topics in social science research.
  • GEO 453  Metropolitan Environments: Urban Forms and Land Uses

    GEO 453  Metropolitan Environments: Urban Forms and Land Uses

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 221
    Description:
    Land use change, the physical fabric of the city, and the growth of regional centers in the American urban landscape. Issues associated with urban developments, practices, and patterns in the 20th century and the resulting metropolitan form and function. Extensive use of geographic information software in spatial analysis.
  • GEO 459  Tourism in Regional Development

    GEO 459  Tourism in Regional Development

    Semester:
    Fall of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 259
    Description:
    The role of tourism in regional development. Examples from Michigan, the United States and other nations. Environmental considerations.
  • GEO 460  Green Roofs and Walls

    GEO 460  Green Roofs and Walls

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 2   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2
    Prerequisite:
    HRT 203 or FW 101 or GEO 206 or PDC 120 or EGR 100
    Restrictions:
    Open to juniors or seniors or graduate students.
    Description:
    Green roof and wall design and installation practices including plant species and substrates. Environmental impact, ecosystem services, integration with other environmental practices. Influence of economics, public policy, and industry organizations on the implementation of green roofs on a wide scale. Multidisciplinary nature of planning and implementation of successful green roof and wall projects.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Horticulture, Fisheries and Wildlife, Planning, Design and Construction
  • GEO 478  Urban Transportation Planning

    GEO 478  Urban Transportation Planning

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Open to juniors or seniors in the Geography Major or in the Urban and Regional Planning Major or approval of school.
    Description:
    Principles of decision-making in urban transportation planning. Demand and supply analysis, social and environmental impacts, implementation programs. Use of computer models.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Urban Planning
  • GEO 480  Senior Seminar (W)

    GEO 480  Senior Seminar (W)

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    Completion of Tier I Writing Requirement
    Restrictions:
    Open to seniors in the Geography Major or in the Geography Minor.
    Description:
    History, philosophy, and methodology of the geographic discipline as it has evolved within academic and social contexts.
  • GEO 490  Independent Study

    GEO 490  Independent Study

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Variable from 1 to 4
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 12 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Restrictions:
    Approval of department.
    Description:
    Supervised individual study in an area supplementary to regular courses.
  • GEO 492  Geographic Research Problems

    GEO 492  Geographic Research Problems

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Variable from 1 to 4
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 12 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Restrictions:
    Not open to freshmen or sophomores. Approval of department.
    Description:
    Supervised original research on selected aspects of geography.
  • GEO 495  Field Study

    GEO 495  Field Study

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Variable from 1 to 4
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 8 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Description:
    Supervised field study in geography.
  • GEO 498  Internship in Geography

    GEO 498  Internship in Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Variable from 1 to 4
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 8 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Description:
    Individual experience in geography in an approved organization.
  • GEO 802  Geospatial Technology

    GEO 802  Geospatial Technology

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    Familiarity with coordinate systems.
    Description:
    Comprehensive introduction to geotechnologies. Concepts and theories of remote sensing to include image interpretation and processing, Global Positioning Systems, spatial data structures, and geographic information systems.
  • GEO 813  Seminar in Urban and Economic Geography

    GEO 813  Seminar in Urban and Economic Geography

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 9 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Recommended Background:
    Two of GEO 413, GEO 414, GEO 415, GEO 418.
    Description:
    Review of research on selected topics in urban and economic geography.
  • GEO 816  The World System of Cities

    GEO 816  The World System of Cities

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Open to graduate students.
    Description:
    Modern global economic restructuring. Social, economic, and political impacts on world system of cities.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Global Urban Studies Program
  • GEO 817  China and Globalization

    GEO 817  China and Globalization

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 113 or GEO 204 or GEO 337 or GEO 413
    Restrictions:
    Open to graduate students.
    Description:
    Theoretical debates and empirical discussions on current social, economic, environmental, and spatial challenges facing contemporary urban China in an era of globalization. Comparative and thematic approach.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Global Urban Studies Program
  • GEO 826  Geocomputation

    GEO 826  Geocomputation

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 9 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Description:
    Research on topics in cartography, geographic information systems, and remote sensing.
  • GEO 827  Digital Image Processing and Analysis

    GEO 827  Digital Image Processing and Analysis

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 2   Lab Hours: 4
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 424
    Description:
    Use of computer to classify and enhance satellite images and to extract information from them. Combining images from different sources. Accuracy assessment of resulting information.
  • GEO 837  Remote Sensing of the Biosphere

    GEO 837  Remote Sensing of the Biosphere

    Semester:
    Fall of even years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Prerequisite:
    GEO 424 or approval of department
    Description:
    Remote sensing for environmental and global change research. Advanced image interpretation and applications with emphasis on independent research projects.
  • GEO 865  Advanced Quantitative Methods in Geography

    GEO 865  Advanced Quantitative Methods in Geography

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 4
    Recommended Background:
    GEO 363
    Description:
    Statistical and mathematical approaches. Multiple regression, principal components and factor analysis, discriminant analysis. Related taxonomic methods.
  • GEO 866  Spatial Data Analysis

    GEO 866  Spatial Data Analysis

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 4   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3   Lab Hours: 2
    Recommended Background:
    (GEO 363 or STT 421 or STT 430) or equivalent quantitative methods courses.
    Description:
    Theory and techniques for statistical analysis of point patterns, spatially continuous data, and data in spatial zones.
    Semester Alias:
    GEO 466
    Interdepartmental With:
    Statistics and Probability
  • GEO 869  Agent-Based Modeling

    GEO 869  Agent-Based Modeling

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Recommended Background:
    Basic understanding of data structures and algorithms covered in an introductory course of any programming language.
    Restrictions:
    Approval of department.
    Description:
    Theoretical concepts related to simulating dynamic geographic phenomena in the intersection between human and natural systems. Innovative agent-based methodology applied to complex social-environmental systems. Hands-on experience of agent-based modeling, with special emphasis on modeling human decision-making and its impact on the natural environment.
    Interdepartmental With:
    Environmental Science and Policy
  • GEO 871  Seminar in Physical Geography

    GEO 871  Seminar in Physical Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 12 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Recommended Background:
    at least one course in physical geography
    Restrictions:
    Approval of department.
    Description:
    Research on topics in physical geography.
  • GEO 872  Seminar in Human Geography

    GEO 872  Seminar in Human Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 12 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Recommended Background:
    at least one course in human geography
    Restrictions:
    Approval of department.
    Description:
    Research on topics in human geography.
  • GEO 873  Seminar in Human-Environment Geography

    GEO 873  Seminar in Human-Environment Geography

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 12 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Recommended Background:
    at least one course in human geography and one course in physical geography.
    Restrictions:
    Approval of department.
    Description:
    Research on topics in human-environment geography.
  • GEO 874  Seminar in Geographic Information Science

    GEO 874  Seminar in Geographic Information Science

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 12 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Recommended Background:
    at least one course in geographic information science, cartography or remote sensing
    Restrictions:
    Approval of department.
    Description:
    Geographic information science (GIS) applications to social and environmental problems. Theory and related issues.
  • GEO 886  Research Design in Geography

    GEO 886  Research Design in Geography

    Semester:
    Spring of every year
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Approval of department.
    Description:
    Research and writing in geography. Identification of geographic problems and their relative importance. Structuring and stating hypotheses. Data acquisition and tests for validity.
  • GEO 890  Advanced Readings in Geography

    GEO 890  Advanced Readings in Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Variable from 1 to 8
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 12 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Restrictions:
    Approval of department.
    Description:
    Advanced independent readings.
  • GEO 892  Advanced Research in Geography

    GEO 892  Advanced Research in Geography

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Variable from 1 to 4
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 12 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Description:
    Advanced independent research.
  • GEO 899  Master's Thesis Research

    GEO 899  Master's Thesis Research

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Variable from 1 to 12
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 99 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Restrictions:
    Open to graduate students.
    Description:
    Master's thesis research.
  • GEO 986  Theories and Philosophies in Geography

    GEO 986  Theories and Philosophies in Geography

    Semester:
    Spring of odd years
    Credits:
    Total Credits: 3   Lecture/Recitation/Discussion Hours: 3
    Restrictions:
    Open to doctoral students in the Geography major.
    Description:
    Historical development of the discipline within social and intellectual contexts. Philosophical approaches behind geographic research and theory.
  • GEO 999  Doctoral Dissertation Research

    GEO 999  Doctoral Dissertation Research

    Semester:
    Fall of every year, Spring of every year, Summer of every year
    Credits:
    Variable from 1 to 36
    Reenrollment Information:
    A student may earn a maximum of 36 credits in all enrollments for this course.
    Restrictions:
    Open to doctoral students in the Department of Geography.
    Description:
    Doctoral dissertation research.