A study of the elements of map design including planning, layout, typography, color theory and selection, and user issues. Techniques of map production, for both printed and electronic display.
A study of the distribution of plants and vegetation in North America including the ecological processes and human impacts responsible for this geography. Includes opportunities for field study.
A study of the relationships between climate and agriculture in resource assessment, water budget analysis, meteorological hazards, pests, crop-yield modeling, and impacts of global climate change.
Principles of fluid dynamics and their application to the atmosphere.
Dynamic and thermodynamic principles of atmospheric science applied to the development and evolution of extratropical cyclones. Laboratory sessions include analysis of current observations and satellite imagery.
A survey of the geomorphic characteristics of the major physiographic and landform regions of the United States.
Field observations of the common geographic relationships among soils, landforms, and vegetation in lower Michigan including the description, analysis, and genesis of soils, surficial processes and landscapes.
An analysis of climate change and variability at various time and space scales. Includes climate systems, paleoclimatology, global warming, climate models, and climate impact assessment.
A survey of the spatial patterns of contemporary global agriculture and food systems. Includes human-environment interactions of selected agricultural practices and food systems and the effects of agricultural practices on natural and human resources.
A study of the themes associated with stream systems including the evolution of drainage basins and channel hydrology, the nature of flowing water, stream discharge, and flooding. Special topics include human controls of stream behavior, channel patterns and landform development. A field project focuses on Michigan stream systems.
A study of the theories and models of urban spatial form including the underlying structures and processes of cities. Special emphasis on socio-spatial dimensions of modern urbanism and differentiation and locational conflict in residential, commercial, and industrial space.
Spatial principles of transportation including theories of interaction, network structures, and location-allocation models. Special emphasis on the role of transport and transport planning.
Classical and neoclassical, static and dynamic models of industrial location and spatial organization. Includes land rent theory, central place theory, multi-locational organization, and growth transmission.
Analysis of the U.S. urban ghetto including its spatial organization and structure including the distribution of racial and ethnic populations.
A study of the measurable interaction of solar radiation with the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Includes introductory digital image processing, radar and thermal remote sensing, earth-resources satellite sensors, data products, and applications.
Advanced theoretical and technical issues in geographic information science utilizing a problems-oriented approach. Development and implementation of geographic information science solutions and formal documentation of work.
Principles, techniques, and decision making in thematic mapping including the use of computer-mapping and geographic information systems (GIS) software to produce individual thematic maps and map series. Emphasis on the electronic delivery of thematic maps.
Theoretical and technical issues of collection, management, analysis, and display of terrain data. Application of photogrammetry, geographic information systems, and cartography to earth landforms.
Applications of computer programming to address geographic information problems. Integration of digital space data, geographic information systems, spatial analysis, and expert systems.
Ethical dimensions of environmental and spatial issues and associated public policies.
Spatio-environmental concepts and techniques applied to health problems including disease transmission cycles, community nutrition, and health-care planning.
Concepts and methods to measure and evaluate geo-spatial and temporal trends in populations and their components, such as natality, mortality, migration, and characteristics at different geographic scales. Topics include sources of spatial population data and visualization and analysis of data in maps.
Political geographies of origins and conduct of nation-states. Includes identity-place dynamics, colonialism and imperialism, resistance and terrorism, and resource and environmental politics.
Survey of the geographic study of world cultures, cultural ecologies, cultural landscapes, and cultural influences on societies’ patterns of spatial organization.
Study of the physical fabric of the city and the growth of regional centers in the American urban landscape. Includes land use change and other issues associated with urban developments, practices and patterns in the 20th century and the resulting metropolitan form and function. Extensive use of geographic information software in spatial analysis of urban patterns.
Spatial patterns and processes associated with regional development in selected world areas.
The role of tourism in regional development with examples from Michigan, the United States, and other nations. Special emphasis on environmental issues.
A review of the history, philosophy, and methodology of the geographic discipline as it has evolved within academic and social contexts. Includes resume building and semester projects.
Supervised individual study in an area supplementary to regular courses.
Supervised original research on selected aspects of geography.
Individual experience in geography in an approved organization.
Comprehensive introduction to geotechnologies including concepts and theories of remote sensing, image interpretation and processing, global positioning systems, spatial data structures, and geographic information systems.
An online comprehensive introduction to geotechnologies including concepts and theories of remote sensing, image interpretation and processing, global positioning systems, spatial data structures, and geographic information systems.
Review of research on selected topics in urban and economic geography.
Modern global economic restructuring and its social, economic, and political impacts on the world system of cities.
Theoretical debates and empirical discussions on current social, economic, environmental, and spatial challenges facing contemporary urban China in an era of globalization. Comparative and thematic approach.
Exploration of the professional field of geographic information science (GIS) career management opportunities, organizational structures, and applications within the public, commercial and academic sectors.
Research on topics in cartography, geographic information systems, and remote sensing.
Use of computers to classify and enhance satellite images and to extract information from them. Includes combining images from different sources and accuracy assessment of resulting information.
Remote sensing for environmental and global change research. Advanced image interpretation and applications with emphasis on independent research projects.
Statistical and mathematical approaches to analyzing spatial data including multiple regression, principal components and factor analysis, discriminant analysis and related taxonomic methods.
Theory and techniques for statistical analysis of point patterns, spatially continuous data, and data in spatial zones.
Using spatial regression to address geographic problems. Modeling spatial processes with continuous and discrete dependent variables. Maximum likelihood estimation. Bayesian approaches.
Theoretical concepts related to simulating dynamic geographic phenomena in the intersection between human and natural systems. Innovative agent-based methodology applied to complex social-environmental systems with hands-on experience of agent-based modeling and with special emphasis on modeling human decision-making and its impact on the natural environment.
Research on topics in physical geography.
Research on topics in human geography.
Research on topics in human-environment geography.
Research on topics in GIS.
Research and writing in geography. Identification of geographic problems and their relative importance including structuring and stating hypotheses, data acquisition and research writing.
Advanced independent readings.
Advanced independent research.
Master’s thesis research.
Historical development of the discipline within social and intellectual contexts. Philosophical approaches behind geographic research and theory.
Doctoral dissertation research.